Acrylonitrile; CASRN 107-13-1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data, as outlined in the . The relationship between the degree of exposure and biological effects of acrylonitrile (AN) was studied in 102 workers whose exposure period exceeded five years, and in 62 matched controls, all of whom had been randomly sampled from six acrylic fibre factories in Japan. • N-2-cyanoethylvaline (CEV) in blood and cotinine in urine were also determined.In non-smokers, a dose-response relation was observed between CEV and short-term health effects. Toxic effects are due primarily to the bioreactivity of acrylonitrile with cellular proteins and to its epoxide intermediate that is mutagenic and genotoxic. Effects also depend on the health of a person or the condition of the environment when exposure occurs. C) EPIDEMIOLOGY: Exposures are uncommon, but deaths have been reported. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyses under Executive Order 12991 for decision-making under CERCLA. Find more information on this substance at: A) USES: Acrylonitrile is a heavily produced unsaturated nitrile. Effects of short-term exposure The substance and the vapour are irritating to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Acrylonitrile is a waste chemical stream constituent which may be subjected to ultimate disposal by controlled incineration. Adducts with human globin have been detected in the blood of exposed workers and of cigarette smokers. Acrylonitrile Fact Sheet. Chronic Health Effects The following chronic (long-term) health effects can occur at some time after exposure to Acrylonitrile and can last for months or years: Cancer Hazard * Acrylonitrile is a PROBABLE CARCINOGEN in humans. Acrylonitrile forms adducts with biological macromolecules. This category is used for agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for which there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and less than sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Route of occupational exposure The primary route of acrylonitrile exposure is via inhalation, with an average respiratory retention of 52 per cent. Acrylonitrile. A) Acrylonitrile is embryotoxic and teratogenic in animals; however, there is no evidence of teratogenic effects at doses below maternal toxic levels. Its glass transition temperature is approximately 105 °C (221 °F). Acrylonitrile is toxic by all routes, is readily absorbed and causes systemic toxicity in addition to local toxicity [1]. The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. EXPOSURE & HEALTH EFFECTS; Routes of exposure The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation of its vapour, through the skin and by ingestion. Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 39 ACRYLONITRILE Please note that the layout and pagination of this pdf file are not necessarily identital to those of the printed copy First draft prepared by G. Long and M.E. Acrylonitrile (CAS 107-13-1) is a clear, colourless, highly flammable liquid with a mild, unpleasant odour. profile for acrylonitrile, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. The objective of this study was to reveal the health effects of acrylonitrile (AN) in seven Japanese acrylic fiber manufacturing factories. The substance may cause effects on the central nervous system. Programme, the International Labour Organization, or the World Health Organization. 1) Tachycardia has been reported following acute exposures. Overview. Sections I (Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects… The objective of this study was to reveal the health effects of acrylonitrile (AN) in seven Japanese acrylic fiber manufacturing factories. ... failed to detect any health effect attributable to AN. [failed verification] ABS is amorphous and therefore has no true melting point.ABS is a terpolymer made by polymerizing styrene and acrylonitrile in the presence of polybutadiene. Toxicological Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.govGet the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, PDF documents can be viewed with the free Adobe® Reader. C) The US Environmental Protection Agency classified it in Group B1 (probable human carcinogen), based on increased lung cancer in exposed workers and tumors in two strains of rats exposed by more than one route (IRIS , 1996). A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS107-13-1 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004): 1) The agent (mixture) is possibly carcinogenic to humans. 1.4 How can acrylonitrile affect my health? All implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose or use are hereby excluded. Evidence of carcinogenicity in humans is limited. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. A) Chronic exposures have been associated with liver damage. IRIS assessment development process. People with breathing problems, such as asthma, may be more sensitive to the effects of acrylonitrile. Profile for acrylonitrile, Toxicological A number of epidemiological studies of persons occupationally exposed to acrylonitrile have found excess cancers of the colon, prostate, and respiratory system, and excess deaths from lymphatic, stomach, and lung cancer. It is a pungent smelling, colorless flammable liquid with the chemical formula CH 2 CHCN. AS/SAN and ABS are higher quality plastics with increased strength, rigidity, toughness and temperature and chemical resistance. Global Health Humans Maximum Allowable Concentration Mice Neoplasms / chemically induced* Neoplasms / epidemiology Neoplasms, Experimental / … These symptoms disappear when the exposure is stopped. 888-232-6348 (TTY) Following a train accident with acrylonitrile, 191 evacuated residents filled in questionnaires. 2) SEVERE TOXICITY: Lactic acidosis, tachycardia, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, anemia, leukocytosis, renal dysfunction, hepatitis, rhabdomyolysis, seizures, coma, respiratory failure, and death have been reported with more severe exposures. ----- epa/600/8-88/014 july, 1987 health effects assessment for acrylonitrile environmental criteria and assessment office office of health and environmental assessment office of research and development u.s. environmental protection agency cincinnati, oh 45268 u g tsnvirormental protection agency Overview Health effects Environmental effects Sources of emissions References Description Acrylonitrile is used in manufacturing acrylic fabrics and carpets. B) Acrylonitrile is a SUSPECTED HUMAN CARCINOGEN. All treatments or procedures are intended to serve as an information resource for physicians or other competent healthcare professionals performing the consultation or evaluation of patients and must be interpreted in view of all attendant circumstances, indications and contraindications. It is a reactive monomer used extensively for the manufacture of acrylic and modacrylic Acrylonitrile health monitoring Acrylonitrile health monitoring. Direct contact of your skin with acrylonitrile will damage the skin so that it may blister and peel. It is classified as a Class 2B carcinogen (possibly carcinogenic) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and workers exposed to high levels of airborne acrylonitrile are diagnosed more frequently with lung cancerthan the rest of the population. EPA has calculated an oral cancer slope factor of 0.54 (mg/kg/d)-1. The relationship between the degree of exposure and biological effects of acrylonitrile (AN) was studied in 102 workers whose exposure period exceeded five years, and in 62 matched controls, all of whom had been randomly sampled from six acrylic fibre factories in Japan. The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are possibly carcinogenic to humans. The study subjects were 157 AN-exposed male shift workers who had been exposed to AN for 17 years on the average and 537 control workers whose working conditions were similar to those of the AN-exposed workers. B) TOXICOLOGY: Acrylonitrile can be toxic by the inhalation, ingestion, and dermal exposure routes. Acrylonitrile can also be absorbed through the skin in quantities sufficient to cause adverse health effects. 1.7 What recommendations has the federal government made to protect human health? It may also be used when there is inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in humans but there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Health Effects of Acute / Single Exposure Human Data General toxicity Acrylonitrile is an irritant, causing severe irritation with any tissues which it may come into contact with. A) DNA damage, unscheduled DNA synthesis, mutations, chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, oncogenic transformation, and other genetic effects have been induced in a variety of short-term assay systems. This fact sheet is part of a series of chemical fact sheets developed by TURI to help Massachusetts companies, community organizations and residents understand the chemical's use and health and environmental effects, as well as the availability of safer alternatives. These clinics specialize in Acute (short-term) exposure of workers to acrylonitrile has been observed to cause mucous membrane irritation, headaches, dizziness, and nausea. Target organ/effect (C 3 H 3 N) z) is a common thermoplastic polymer. Acrylonitrile is highly flammable and toxic at low doses. Acrylonitrile is highly flammable and toxic. Exposure of the skin to high concentrations of acrylonitrile in the air may irritate the skin and cause it … The use of the Truven Health Analytics Inc. products is at your sole risk. It also functions as a pesticide fumigant. For more information about this message, please visit this page: Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. (focussing on health effects and mode of action of carcinogenicity) and of registration dossiers on acrylonitrile provided under the European chemicals legislation REACH9 (focussing on uses and workers’ exposure). Acrylonitrile: health effects, incident management and toxicology Information on acrylonitrile (2-propenenitrile; cyanoethylene; vinyl cyanide) for … Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Health effects. These products are provided "as is" and "as available" for use, without warranties of any kind, either express or implied. Medical Management Guidelines (MMG) for Acute Chemical Exposure. It undergoes explosive polymerization. Truven Health Analytics Inc. does not assume any responsibility or risk for your use of the Truven Health Analytics Inc. products. Dermal contact may result in erythema, dermatitis, a burning sensation, and blister formation. Health effects of acrylonitrile in acrylic fibre factories. It is widely utilized in synthetics, surface coatings, plastics, and adhesives manufacturing, especially in the form of acrylic and modacrylic fibers. 1) MILD TO MODERATE TOXICITY: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sneezing, eye irritation, headache, weakness, and irritability may occur with mild to moderate exposures. Acrylonitrile and derivatives, such as 2-chloro-acrylonitrile, are dienophiles in Diels-Alder reactions. 1.5 What levels of exposure have resulted in harmful health effects? Key words: Acrylonitrile, Carcinogenicity, Acute health effects, Chronic health effects, Occupational exposure limit Introduction Acrylonitrile (AN) is a colorless and volatile liquid with the boiling point of 77.3°C. Much of the toxicity of acrylonitrile is thought to be due to metabolic generation of cyanide; symptoms are similar to those induced by cyanide, but with slower onset. This compound is a major chemical intermediate, employed in creating such products as pharmaceuticals, antioxidants, and dyes, as well as in organic synthesis. Its vapors are highly flammable and can explode when exposed to an open flame. Myhr, B., Bower, L., and Caspary, W. Assays for the induction of gene mutations at the thymine kinase locus in L1578Y mouse lymphoma cells in culture. Hence, In conclusion the effects of acrylonitrile on human health and the environment depend on how much acrylonitrile is present and the length and frequency of exposure. However, acrylonitrile is metabolized to a lesser extent in humans than in rodents; therefore cyanide toxicity may play a lesser role in humans than toxicity of the parent compound or its more proximate metabolites. Potential health effects following exposure to acrylonitrile 4. Exposure to acrylonitrile is primarily occupational: it is used in the manufacture of acrylic acid and modacrylic fibers. It undergoes explosive polymerization. 5. It is also known as vinyl cyanide. Registry (ATSDR). ATSDR can also tell you the location of occupational and environmental health clinics. Acrylonitrile increases cancer in high dose tests in male and female rat… The burning material releases fumes of hydrogen cyanide and oxides of nitrogen. The major uses of acrylonitrile are in the manufacture of polymers, resins, plastics and nitrile rubbers. ----- EPA Report No.560/7-81-007 July 1981 ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH ASPECTS OF ACRYLONITRILE A Comprehensive Bibliography of Published Literature 1930 - 1981 by Management Support Division Information Support Services Branch Office of Toxic Substances Washington, D.C. 20460 68-06-5836 Project Officers Michael Weaver, Delores Evans Management Support Division … recognizing, evaluating, and treating illnesses resulting from exposure to hazardous substances. A) Acrylonitrile is carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Biological monitoring of acrylonitrile-derived mercapturic acids in human urine is a promising, but insufficiently validated, method for the estimation of the total uptake of acrylonitrile. 1.3 How can acrylonitrile enter and leave my body? In some instances, an agent, mixture or exposure circumstance for which there is inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in humans but limited evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals together with supporting evidence from other relevant data may be placed in this group. Email: Contact CDC-INFO. Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH) CAS number: 107-13-1 NIOSH REL: 1 ppm TWA, 10 ppm 15-minute CEILING [skin]; NIOSH considers acrylonitrile to be a potential occupational carcinogen as defined by the OSHA carcinogen policy [29 CFR 1990]. The information contained in the Truven Health Analytics Inc. products is intended as an educational aid only. Nitrogen oxides removed from effluent gas by scrubbers and/or thermal devices. It is used extensively in the manufacture of synthetic fibres, resins, plastics, elastomers, and rubber for a variety of consumer goods such as textiles, dinnerware, food containers, toys, luggage, automotive parts, small Account has also been taken of the comments provided by interested parties during the public consultation. Truven Health Analytics Inc. makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, timeliness, usefulness or completeness of any of the information contained in the productsAdditionally, Truven Health ANALYTICS INC. makes no representation or warranties as to the opinions or other service or data you may access, download or use as a result of use of the Truven Health ANALYTICS INC. products. 1990. Acrylonitrile is a SUSPECTED HUMAN CARCINOGEN. Acrylonitrile (CASRN 107-13-1), also known as AN or vinyl cyanide, is a man-made VOC. The six factories were classified into three groups on the basis of AN concentration at workplaces. 1.6 Is there a medical test to determine whether I have been exposed to acrylonitrile? * Exposure to Acrylonitrile can cause weakness, headache, dizziness, confusion, nausea, vomiting, and can lead to death. A number of epidemiological studies of persons occupationally exposed to acrylonitrile have found excess cancers of the colon, prostate, and respiratory system, and … Acrylonitrile is also a precursor in the industrial manufacture of acrylamide and acrylic acid. It's the same situation with other plastics like acrylonitrile styrene (AS) or styrene acrylonitrile (SAN) which is used in Brita pitchers and many mixing bowls, dishes, cups and cutlery. In Evaluation of Short-Term 1.2 How might I be exposed to acrylonitrile? Of a person or the World health Organization AN concentration at workplaces programme, International. 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